«L’énergie communautaire pour un avenir renouvelable!» 2e Conférence Mondiale sur l’Energie Communautaire a Bamako, Mali, 8-10 novembre 2018


Bonn / Bamako, 29 octobre 2018 (WWEA / MFC) – Des experts de 30 pays se réuniront à Bamako, la capitale du Mali, du 8 au 10 novembre, afin de discuter de l’état de l’énergie communautaire en Afrique et dans le monde.

L’Association Mondiale de l’Energie Eolienne (WWEA) et Mali-Folkecenter Nyetaa (MFC), ainsi que l’Institut des Politiques Energétiques Durables du Japon (ISEP), en coopération avec le Ministère de l’Energie et de l’Eau du Mali organiseront la 2e Conférence Mondiale de l’Energie Communautaire, WCPC2018. L’événement réunira des experts et des parties prenantes de l’énergie communautaire aux niveaux national, régional et international, qui serviront de tremplin au concept de l’énergie communautaire en Afrique.

Les hôtes de la WCPC2018 sont fiers de présenter un programme très inspirant comprenant près de 100 panélistes et présentations, couvrant des perspectives très différentes de  l’énergie communautaire et des énergies renouvelables, avec un accent particulier mis sur les zones non desservies en Afrique, mais également avec des intervenants du monde entier.

Le pays hôte, le Mali, sera représenté par plusieurs ministres, et des sessions spécifiques ont été préparées en partenariat avec des organisations partenaires sur des thèmes tels que le rôle du journalisme, les gouvernements locaux, les législateurs, le renforcement des capacités, la coopération transfrontalière, etc. Le programme détaillé de la conférence est maintenant disponible sur le site web de la conférence

L’inscription est toujours possible sur le site Web WCPC2018 et est gratuite! Les hôtes de la WCPC2018 invitent les parties prenantes de l’énergie communautaires du monde entier à se joindre à la discussion sur la manière de maximiser les avantages des énergies renouvelables pour tous les êtres humains.

La WCPC2018 a obtenu l’appui du Gouvernement du Mali, du Ministère Allemand de l’Environnement, du Programme Alimentaire Mondial, de la GIZ, de Global100RE, d’ICLEI, d’AIG, de la Coalition IRENA pour l’action, d’ISES, de REN21, de l’Alliance REN, de WBA, de WFC et de plusieurs autres organisations internationales.

Les langues officielles de la conférence seront l’anglais et le français, avec interprétation simultanée.

Voir court métrage sur la conférence: en francais

“Community Power for a Renewable Future!” 2nd World Community Power Conference in Bamako Mali, 8-10 November 2018


Bonn/Bamako, 29 October 2018 (WWEA/MFC) – Experts from 30 countries will meet in Bamako, the capital city of Mali, from 8-10 November in order to discuss the state of community power in Africa and worldwide.

The World Wind Energy Association WWEA and the Malifolkecenter Nyetaa MFC, together with the Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies Japan ISEP, will host the 2nd World Community Power Conference WCPC2018.

The event will bring together national, regional and international community power experts and stakeholders to provide a launch pad for the community power concept in Africa.

The WCPC2018 hosts are proud to present a very inspiring programme with close to 100 panelists and presentations, covering very different perspectives of community power and renewable energy, with a strong focus on unserved areas in Africa but also with speakers from all over the world.

The host country Mali will be represented by several ministers. Dedicated sessions have been prepared in partnership with partner organisations on topics like the role of journalism, local governments, legislators, capacity building, cross-border cooperation and more. The detailed programme of the conference is now available on the conference website: 

Registration is still possible on the WCPC2018 website and is free of charge! The WCPC2018 hosts invite community energy stakeholders from around the world to join the discussion on how to maximise the benefits of renewable energy for all human beings.

WCPC2018 has obtained the support of the Government of Mali, the German Ministry for the Environment, World Food Programme, GIZ, Global100RE, ICLEI, IGA, IHA, IRENA Coalition for Action, ISES, REN21, REN Alliance, WBA, WFC and several other international organisations.

The official conference languages will be English and French, with simultaneous interpretation.

General informationwww.conference.community

A small film gives an introduction to WCPC2018 and the host country:

in English

and in French:

 

Un message aux héroines méconnues du Mali – et du monde


Mali Folkecenter Nyetaa dresse le bilan des activités visant à améliorer les conditions de vie des femmes rurales au Mali et ailleurs. L’occasion en est la Journée Internationale de la Femme Rurale, aujourd’hui 15 octobre.

«Les femmes rurales, nos Yeleni, colonne vertébrale de la société malienne, sont tous les jours les premières à se réveiller et les dernières à se coucher. Ce sont elles qui soutiennent la société malienne de toutes les manières possibles. Mais leurs rôles et leurs responsabilités ne sont toujours pas aussi pleinement reconnus qu’ils devraient l’être, même si des efforts positifs sont en cours ».

Ministre Keita Aïda M’bo

C’est le message de la Ministre malienne de l’Environnement, de l’Assainissement et du Développement Durable, Mme Keita Aïda Mbo, adressé aux femmes rurales du Mali.

L’occasion en est la Journée internationale de la femme rurale, célébrée chaque année le 15 octobre.

Et la ministre ajoute à propos du rôle méconnu des femmes rurales:

«Pour que le Mali réalise un développement inclusif et durable, cela doit changer. Mon département, le ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Assainissement et du Développement Durable, en collaboration avec Mali-Folkecenter Nyetaa, travaille avec les associations et coopératives de femmes, les autorités locales et d’autres acteurs de la société civile en tant que l’un de nos domaines prioritaires ».

Au MFC, le message du ministre a été reçu avec joie. MFC est conscient du rôle joué par les femmes rurales, non seulement au Mali, mais aussi dans toute l’Afrique.

Et MFC est entièrement d’accord avec le ministre pour dire que le dur labeur des femmes rurales n’est malheureusement toujours pas pleinement reconnu.

Travail invisible

Coopérative Nyetaa, Garalo

Ceci reflète les conclusions de diverses organisations internationales. ONU Femmes, par exemple, affirme à plusieurs reprises que le travail des femmes rurales du monde «reste invisible et non rémunéré».

De plus, les femmes et les filles des zones rurales n’ont l’égal accès à presque rien. Elles possèdent très rarement la terre et reçoivent moins d’éducation et de soins de santé que les hommes.

MFC est douloureusement conscient de ces faits et consacre une grande partie de ses activités au changement des conditions de vie des femmes rurales au Mali.

Une de ces interventions concerne une communauté autour de Garalo, dans le sud du Mali.

Ici, MFC a créé un jardin de légumes commerciaux qui augmentera les revenus de plus de 200 femmes.

Le lieu est choisi avec soin: en plein cœur de la petite ville de Garalo, ce qui permet aux femmes d’accéder facilement au jardin et à la zone commerciale de la région.

Mme Sata Samake de la coopérative Nyetaa, Garalo

Les femmes se sont organisées en une coopérative, nommée d’après MFC, «Nyetaa» et ont mis en place neuf comités directeurs pour tous les districts de Garalo.

Ceci afin de garantir que tous les processus sont surveillés de près – de la plantation, la croissance et l’entretien, jusqu’à la vente même sur les marchés régionaux.

Les cultures principales sont le gombo, la tomate et la pastèque. À côté du jardin, un autre projet générateur de revenus a été lancé: une unité de transformation de noix de karité qui produit également du beurre de karité destiné à la vente. La coopérative est désormais financièrement indépendante.

Les femmes en tant que décideuses

Un autre projet intéressant pour les femmes rurales est la coopérative Sinsibéré, créée par MFC et basée à Bougoula, à quelque 60 kilomètres au sud de Bamako. Cette coopérative est autonome depuis 3 ans et fonctionne sans argent de projet.

La durabilité de Sinsibéré est due à l’attention persistante des femmes pour des activités génératrices de revenus pour remplacer la coupe et la vente de bois, tels que la culture et la vente de produits agricoles, ainsi qu’à leur souci constant de la protection de l’environnement.

Selon les mots d’Aminata Barry, Responsable Genre et Développement Economique chez MFC, le projet «a lancé un processus d’autonomisation et d’émancipation qui a affecté le pouvoir de décision des femmes».

Les efforts ont été fructueux:

Certaines femmes de la coopérative sont maintenant élues membres du gouvernement local. Certains sont des conseillères communales et d’autres des conseillères.

Mme Barry est fière d’appeler ce projet l’un des «grands succès» de Mali Folkecenter, mais avertit que «nous devons toujours prêter une attention particulière à la vulnérabilité des femmes rurales et à la fragilité de l’environnement.» «Les femmes rurales ont encore besoin de soutien pour promouvoir le développement économique et renforcer le processus décisionnel local», a déclaré Mme Barry.

Écart entre les sexes

La même conclusion s’est dégagée d’une réunion organisée par l’Union africaine (UA) et l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture (FAO) en marge de la récente Assemblée générale des Nations Unies à New York.

Le Directeur général de la FAO, Jose Graziano da Silva, a déclaré à l’issue de la réunion: «Nous devons mieux reconnaître et tirer parti de la contribution fondamentale des femmes à la sécurité alimentaire et à la nutrition. Pour cela, nous devons combler les écarts persistants entre les hommes et les femmes dans l’agriculture en Afrique ».

En outre, ONU Femmes reconnaît qu’il existe un écart considérable entre les genres dans les zones rurales.

L’organisation a calculé que jusqu’à 60% du travail agricole est effectué par des femmes, alors que seulement 32% des femmes possèdent des terres agricoles dans 27 pays d’Afrique subsaharienne.

Et un rapport conjoint de l’UA et de la FAO estime que seules 13% des femmes, contre 40% des hommes, sont propriétaires exclusives de tout ou partie des terres qu’elles possèdent.

En outre, les petits agriculteurs, et donc les femmes, produisent «80% de la nourriture en Afrique et en Afrique subsaharienne et assurent la subsistance de quelque 2,5 milliards de personnes». Cependant, les femmes vivent toujours dans une «pauvreté multidimensionnelle disproportionnée».

Changement climatique et impact négatif

La Journée Internationale de la Femme Rurale, le 15 octobre, sera également axée sur le changement climatique et son impact particulièrement négatif sur les femmes rurales.

ONU Femmes: «Les changements dans la disponibilité de ces ressources (eau et carburant, éd.) dus à la sécheresse et à la rareté induites par le climat ont une incidence sur le temps et le niveau d’effort requis pour collecter, sécuriser, distribuer et stocker ces ressources».

En bref: il faut plus de temps et plus d’efforts pour collecter l’eau, ce qui est principalement un travail effectué par les femmes.

Trois jours de commémoration de l’ONU

Le mardi 16 octobre est une autre journée spéciale des Nations Unies, la «Journée Mondiale de l’Alimentation», consacrée à l’éradication de la faim, à l’amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire et à la lutte contre la pauvreté. Le thème de cette année est «Changer l’avenir de la migration: investir dans la sécurité alimentaire et le développement rural».

Une troisième journée commémorative a lieu le 17 octobre, lorsque l’ONU attire l’attention du monde sur la pauvreté lors de la «Journée Internationale pour l’Eradication de la Pauvreté».

Cette journée mettra en avant l’autonomisation des femmes rurales, leur accès à la terre, à l’eau et à l’énergie.

Ainsi, pendant trois jours, le rôle crucial des femmes rurales dans le développement durable sera mis en lumière.

MFC soutient pleinement ces efforts de commémoration, mais comme l’a souligné Mme Aminata Barry: «Les femmes des zones rurales devraient faire l’objet de toute notre attention toute l’année».

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Yeleni en langue bambara signifie « une femme qui travaille dur pour le bien-être de sa famille et de sa communauté et qui est respectée par la société »

La Journée internationale des Femmes Rurales le 15 octobre a été lancée lors de la quatrième Conférence des Nations Unies sur les Femmes, tenue à Beijing en 1995.

ONU Femmes est l’Entité des Nations Unies pour l’Egalité des Genres et l’Autonomisation des Femmes

Lisez le rapport de la FAO: «Ne laissez personne» ici (en anglais)

La Journée Mondiale de l’Alimentation a été instituée en 1979 par les trois institutions des Nations Unies que sont la FAO (Organisation pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture), le PAM (Programme Alimentaire Mondial) et le FIDA (Fonds International pour le Développement Agricole).

La «Journée Internationale pour l’Eradication de la Pauvreté» est organisée depuis 1987, année où l’ONG ATD Quart Monde a instauré cette journée. Cinq ans plus tard, en 1992, les Nations Unies ont officiellement adopté la journée internationale.

A message to the unsung heroes of Mali – and the world


Mali Folkecenter Nyetaa takes stock of activities aiming at improving conditions for rural women in Mali and elsewhere. The occasion is the International Day of Rural Women, today, 15 October.

“Rural women, our Yeleni, the backbone of Malian society, every day they are the first to wake up and the last ones to go to bed. They are the ones supporting Malian society in every possible way. But their roles and responsibilities are still not fully recognised as they should be, even if there are some positive efforts taking place”.

Minister of Environment, Keita Aïda M’bo

This is the message from Mali’s Minister for Environment, Sanitation and Sustainable Development, Mrs. Keita Aïda M’bo, to rural women in Mali.

The occasion is International Day of Rural Women that is celebrated every year on 15 October.

And the minister adds about the unheeded role of rural women:

“For Mali to achieve inclusive and sustainable development this must change. My Department, the Ministry of Environment, Sanitation and Sustainable Development together with Mali-Folkecenter Nyetaa, work with women associations and cooperatives, local authorities and other civil society actors as one of our priority areas”.

At MFC the message from the minister was received with agreement. MFC is aware of the role played by rural women, not only in Mali, but all over Africa.

And MFC fully agrees with the Minister that the hard work of rural women is unfortunately still not fully recognized.

Invisible work

Garalo Women’s Cooperative Nyetaa in southern Mali

This a reflection of the findings of various international organisations. UN Women, for instance, states repeatedly that the work of the worlds’ rural women “remains invisible and unpaid”.

On top of it, women and girls in rural areas lack equal access to almost everything: They very seldom own land and they receive less education and health care than men.

MFC is painfully aware of these facts and dedicates a lot of its activities to change conditions for rural women in Mali.

One such intervention concerns a community around Garalo in southern Mali.

Here MFC has established a garden for cash crop vegetables that will increase income for more than 200 women.

The location is carefully chosen: right in the middle of the small Garalo town, which gives the women easy access both to the garden and to the trade area in the region.

Mrs. Sata Samake of the Nyetaa Cooperative, Garalo

The women have organised themselves in a cooperative, named after MFC, “Nyetaa” and have established nine governing boards for all districts of Garalo.

This to ensure that all processes are carefully monitored – from planting, growing and upkeep, to the actual sale in regional markets.

The main crops are okra, tomato and watermelon, and next to the garden another income-generating project has been initiated: a shea nut processing unit that produces shea butter for sale as well. As of now the cooperative has become financially independent.

Women as decision-makers

Another project to the benefit of rural women is the MFC-initiated cooperative Sinsibéré based in Bougoula some 60 kilometres south of Bamako.  This cooperative has been autonomous now for 3 years, running without project money.

The sustainability of Sinsibéré is due to the women’s persistent focus on income-generating activities to replace cutting and selling wood. Instead the women grow and sell agricultural produce and share a conscientious regard for the protection of the environment.

With the words of Aminata Barry, Head of Gender and Economic Development at MFC the project “started a process of empowerment and emancipation that affected the power of decision for the women”.

The efforts were fruitful:

Some women from the cooperative are now elected members of the local government. Some are communal counsellors and others are advisers.

Mrs. Barry is proud to call the project one of Mali Folkecenter’s “great successes” but warns that “we still need to pay close attention to the vulnerability of rural women and the fragile environment. Rural women still need support to promote economic development and strengthen local decision-making”, says Mrs. Barry.

Gender gap

The same conclusion came out of a meeting organised by the African Union (AU) and the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) on the side-lines of the recent UN General Assembly in New York City.

FAO’s Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva said after the meeting that “we need to better recognise and harness the fundamental contribution of women to food security and nutrition. For that, we must close persisting gender gaps in agriculture in Africa”.

Also, UN Women recognizes that there is a considerable gender gap in rural areas.

The organisation has calculated that up to 60 percent of agricultural labour is carried out by women, while only 32 percent of women own agricultural lands across 27 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

And a joint report by AU and FAO estimates that only 13 percent of women, compared to 40 percent of men, have exclusive ownership on all or part of the land they own.

Moreover, small farmers, and hence women, produce “80 per cent of food in Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa and support the livelihood of some 2.5 billion people”. But still women live in “disproportionally multi-dimensional poverty”.

Climate change and negative impact

International Day of Rural Women on 15 October also focuses on climate change and the particular negative impact on rural women.

UN Women: “Changes in the availability of these resources (water and fuel, ed.) due to climate-induced drought and scarcity affect the time and level of effort required to collect, secure, distribute and store these resources”.

In short: it takes longer time and more effort to collect water, which is predominantly work carried out by women.

Three UN commemoration days

Tuesday 16 October is another UN special day, “World Food Day” focusing on eradicating hunger, improving food security and fighting poverty. This year’s theme is “Change the future of Migration: Invest in Food Security and Rural Development”.

Yet a third commemorative day is held on 17 October) when the UN draw the world’s attention to poverty on “International Day for the Eradication of Poverty”.

That day will highlight rural women’s empowerment, their access to land, water and energy.

Hence, the spotlight will be on rural women’s crucial role in sustainable development for a full three days.

MFC fully supports these commemorative efforts, but as Mrs. Aminata Barry points out: “Rural women should be the focus of our attention all year long”.

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Yeleni in the bambara language means “a lady who is working hard for the well-being of her family and her community and who is respected by the society”

International Day of Rural Women on 15 October was initiated during the fourth UN conference on women in Beijing in 1995.

Un Women is the United Nations’ Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women

Read the FAO report: “Leave no one behind” here:

World Food Day was instituted in 1979 by the three UN institutions FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation), WFP (World Food Programme) and IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development).

“International Day for the Eradication of Poverty” has been held since 1987 when the NGO ATD Fourth World introduced the day. Five years later, in 1992, the United Nations formally adopted the international day.

 

“They can pass through, but they should not stay”


Conflicts between herders and farmers in southwestern Mali threaten to turn violent – Elsewhere in Africa degradation of pastures has led to deadly clashes

 “Please do not let your cattle eat our cashew nuts” 

This plea was transmitted from a radio station in Filamana village to listeners in the wider southwestern Mali region.

Local farmers appealed to nomadic herders to stop cows trampling onto farmland, eating and destroying crops. At best, sounded the message: leave the region completely.

The radio station, Sigida Nyetaa (or “Environment Forward” in English), situated in Mali Folkecenter’s training centre in Filamana in southwestern Mali, is normally not engaged in conflicts between its listeners.

The station mainly works to sensitize the local populace about climate change, but on this particular day the two young radio reporters, who was responsible for the broadcast, Yusuf Koyate and Barry Koné, felt they had to relay “the sentiments of the people”.

They had not foreseen that the message, spread in an 85 kilometer’s diameter, would create such a commotion as it did.

The sous-prefect in Yanfolila heard it, was alarmed, got into his car and drove the 79 kilometer south-east to Filamana where he arrested the two young radio reporters. In the sous-prefet’s opinion the youngsters had violated broadcasting rules.

He took them to Yanfolila and put them in front of a judge who sentenced them to prison for “incitement to violence” and for “spreading illegal information”.

Luckily for the youngsters level-headed citizens intervened and instigated arbitrations between them, people from Filamana and the authorities in Yanfolila. Finally, all agreed that the reporters had gone a bit too far. The young men promised not to do it again. The verdict was withdrawn. They were set free to go home to Filamana.

Tense situation

The incident demonstrates how close to boiling point a conflict between resident farmers and nomadic cattle herders has come.

Mr. Daouda Sangaré, who is Mayor of Koussan Commune, under which authority is  Filamana village, estimates that the situation is now so tense that “we are on the verge of bloodshed”. Therefore, a message that could excite already angry minds was not exactly what the village needed.

The mayor, like most people in Filamana, is painfully aware that the underlying cause for the conflict is climate change.

The cattle herders react to changing weather patterns: Lack of rain, droughts and desertification. With no water or grass the herders move their cattle to greener pastures.

The problem is that the current movement south make the herders trespass farmland, that, the mayor opines, belongs to farmers, not to the herders. “They can pass through, but they should not stay”, he says.

That is the core question of the conflict: who owns the land?

Who owns the land?

Resident farmers believe they do, and that was the sentiment that the radio station relayed to the listeners.

The herders, on their side, reckon that they adhere to age-old beliefs that allow them to move their cattle anywhere they want to graze for survival.

One conflict of many

Ironically, in Filamana, everybody, farmers and herders, come from the same ethnic group, the Fulanis. They share the same history, the same roots, are all predominantly Muslim. The difference between the two groups is that some have settled, while some maintain traditional Fulani nomadic life-style.

Filamana is not the only place in Africa where fights over land and water are escalating these days. Nomadic Fulanis are often on one side of a conflict for the plain reason that they are spread all over western and central Africa and as such the largest cattle-driving group in the world. In Africa they are increasingly on a southward move due to environmental degradation.

In Nigeria a conflict has been going on for several years and is now so violent that the think-tank, International Crisis Group, recently wrote in a report, that the “rising conflict between herders and farmers is six times deadlier in 2018 than Boko Haram’s insurgency”. The think-tank concluded that the root of the clashes in Nigeria, “lie in climate-induced degradation of pasture ».

Looming conflicts

Also, reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo tell about rising violence between herders and farmers. Here another Fulani nomadic group, the Mbororos, are involved. They drive their cattle across the border from the Central African Republic and, like in Mali, happen to trample over farmland, that the local population insist is their property.

And, Fulani herders have also started moving their cattle over the border from Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger to Ghana due to drought. New and dangerous conflicts with local farmers ensue in a country where Fulanis historically have made up only a very small part of the population.

Ghana National Association of Cattle Farmers recently told Reuters news agency that the association “recorded 104 deaths from farmer-herder clashes” in 2017 “the highest (number) yet, followed by 73 deaths in 2015”

A powerful tool

Back in Filamana, the youngsters from radio Sigida Nyetaa will do their utmost to avoid situations like in Nigeria and Ghana, and work to ease the tension between farmers and herders with messages and programmes that advocate for peaceful negotiations.

“We realized how powerful a tool radio is”, as reporter Koyate puts it.

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Cover picture is from Nigeria

Read the report from International Crisis Group on the farmer-herder conflict in Nigeria here: https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/west-africa/nigeria/262-stopping-nigerias-spiralling-farmer-herder-violence/

Read the Reuter report from Ghana here: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ghana-agriculture-conflict/growing-wealth-brings-rise-in-deadly-conflict-in-northern-ghana-idUSKBN1KN1S6

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On the Fulani, short extract from Wikipedia:

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe

French: Peul

are between 20 and 25 million people in total, one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language and their Islamic religious affiliation, their history and their culture.

A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 7 to 8 million  are pastoralists, making them the ethnic group with the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world.

Some prominent Fulas:

The President of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari

The President of Senegal, Macky Sall

The President of Gambia, Adama Barrow

Former President of Burkina Faso; Burkina Faso, Thomas Sankara

Amadou Toumani Touré, Former President of Mali

Soumaïla Cissé, Opposition Leader, Mali

Baba Maal, musician, Senegal

The origins of the Fulani people are unclear and various theories have been postulated. Oral histories point toward a start in Egypt or farther east. Their language, though, suggests that they come from the Senegambian region

The Fulani follow a code of behavior known as pulaaku, which consists of the qualities of patience, self-control, discipline, prudence, modesty, respect for others (including foes), wisdom, forethought, personal responsibility, hospitality, courage, and hard work.

Recurrent droughts have meant that a lot of traditional herding families have been forced to give up their nomadic way of life. Increasing urbanization has also meant that a lot of traditional Fulani grazing lands have been taken for developmental purposes, or forcefully converted into farmlands.

The language of the Fulani is Pulaar. All Senegalese and Mauritanians who speak the language natively are known as the Halpulaar or Haalpulaar’en, which means « speakers of Pulaar ».

The full Wikipedia text on the Fulani can be found here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fula_people

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This is the third of a mini-series of articles from Mali Folkecenter’s intervention zone in southwestern Mali. Read about Bozo fisherfolk’s struggle for survival here

and about gold-digging and pollution here